as a prep. introducing the agent in a passive construction may be rendered by ló (nahtana ló Turin *“slain by Túrin”, VT42:24) or by the instrumental case (turún’ ambartanen “by doom mastered”, UT:138). BY meaning “near; next to” may be rendered by ara “beside” (*coa ara ëar, “a house by the sea”). BY THIS MEANS, see SO.

Quettaparma Quenyallo (English-Quenya). 2014.


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